Sex differences in cardiometabolic disorders
The prevalence of cardiometabolic disorders in both women and men has increased worldwide and is linked to a rise in obesity and obesity-associated associated clustering of other cardiometabolic risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose regulation and dyslipidemia. However, the predominance of common types of cardiometabolic disorders such as heart failure, atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease is sex specific, and our identification of these and the underlying mechanisms is only just emerging. New evidence suggests that sex hormones, sex-specific molecular mechanisms and gender influence glucose and lipid metabolisms, as well as cardiac energy metabolism, and function. Here we review sex differences in cardiometabolic risk factors, associated preclinical and clinical cardiac disorders and potential therapeutic avenues.