Abstract / Description: 

As the Institute of Medicine defined, sex and gender have a different connotation: while sex refers to the biological aspects, gender describes the cultural factors of being male or female.1 Both play a role in medicine, first and foremost sex as it modulates cardiovascular function, as well as symptoms2 and disease presentation between males and females; some cardiovascular (CV) conditions such as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)3 or even more so the Takotsubo syndrome4,5 as well as INOCA (i.e. ischaemia with non-obstructed coronary arteries6 are much more common in females than in males.

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General CV
Thomas F Lüscher, MD, FESC