Race and Ethnicity Considerations in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease and Stroke
Notable racial and ethnic differences and disparities exist in coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke epidemiology and outcomes despite substantial advances in these fields. Racial and ethnic minority subgroups remain underrepresented in population data and clinical trials contributing to incomplete understanding of these disparities. Differences in traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes play a role; however, disparities in care provision and process, social determinants of health including socioeconomic position, neighborhood environment, sociocultural factors, and racial discrimination within and outside of the health care system also drive racial and ethnic CAD and stroke disparities. Improved culturally congruent and competent communication about risk factors and symptoms is also needed. Opportunities to achieve improved and equitable outcomes in CAD and stroke must be identified and pursued.