Management and prevention of cardiovascular disease for type 2 diabetes: Integrating the diabetes management recommendations of AACE, ADA, EASD, AHA, ACC, and ESC☆
With the recognition from recent cardiovascular outcome trials that two classes of glucose-lowering agents for type 2 diabetes (T2D), the sodium-glucose linked transporter inhibitors (SGLT2i) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are associated with cardiovascular (CV) outcome benefit, there has been increasing effort to sort out the implications for clinical practice. A number of major professional organizations and societies involved in the care of diabetes and of CVD have produced recommendations to address these outcomes. Differences result from the burgeoning clinical trial reports of CV outcomes and the fact that the mode of action of the various treatments of T2D are largely not known, leading to differences in interpretation and consequent evolution of treatment recommendations. As would be expected, the documents show various degrees of overlap in the clinical trials cited and more so in the conclusions. The present analysis should be seen as a review of these practice recommendations, selectively integrating and highlighting areas of agreement, specific suggestions, and the differences between the organizations.