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Abstract / Description:

Health equity is where everyone has a fair and just opportunity to live their healthiest life possible. But health inequity remains. Now the COVID-19 pandemic is worsening historical inequities, and disproportionately affecting and killing Latinos and other people of color. So what can we do? We need to both immediate focus to ease the coronavirus pandemic and its impact on Latinos and people of color, as well as long-term strides to address underlying inequities that are aggravated during this time. It won’t be easy, or fast. But here’s few ways to push for health equity.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, Hispanic/Latino

Date: 2020

Author: Amelie Ramirez

Abstract / Description:

Recent polling on coronavirus-related unemployment is illuminating alarming statics — mainly, Latinos are bearing the burden of the economic tidal wave impacting the U.S.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, Hispanic/Latino

Date: 2020

Author: Josh McCormack

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Abstract / Description:

The American College of Cardiology (ACC) announced on May 11, 2020, that it will start collecting data from 2 registries, NCDR Chest Pain-MO and CathPCI, on patients with novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) and heart disease, in an effort to better understand the effects of the virus in this patient population that is affected to a greater extent than the general population by this virus.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Marissa Purdy

Abstract / Description:

Access to care has been an ongoing health care issue for socially and economically disadvantaged populations in the United States for many decades. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted these disparities as people of color suffer disparate mortality and face growing inequities in care. This moderated panel discussion provides a broad insight into these issues and discusses the need for greater attention to the access to care problem for many U.S. communities.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Debra Furr-Holden, Participants: Olivia Carter-Pokras, Mary Kimmel, and Charles Mouton

Abstract / Description:

In Chicago, a recent report found that 70 percent of people who died from COVID-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus, are black ó even though the city's population is just 30 percent black. In Milwaukee County, which is 27 percent black, the figure is 81 percent. And public health officials tracking the coronavirus have seen similar disproportionate impacts on African Americans in Philadelphia, Detroit and other cities.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Erin Einhorn

Abstract / Description:

In Chicago, a recent report found that 70 percent of people who died from COVID-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus, are black — even though the city's population is just 30 percent black.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Erin Einhorn

Abstract / Description:

Objective:  To determine the household and community characteristics most closely associated with variation in COVID-19 incidence on American Indian reservations in the lower 48 states. Design:  Multivariate analysis with population weights. Setting:  Two hundred eighty-seven American Indian Reservations and tribal homelands (in Oklahoma) and, as of April 10, 2020, 861 COVID-19 cases on these reservation lands. Main Outcome Measures:  The relationship between rate per 1000 individuals of publicly reported COVID-19 cases at the tribal reservation and/or community level and average household characteristics from the 2018 5-Year American Community Survey records. Results:  By April 10, 2020, in regression analysis, COVID-19 cases were more likely by the proportion of homes lacking indoor plumbing (10.83, P = .001) and were less likely according to the percentage of reservation households that were English-only (−2.43, P = .03). Household overcrowding measures were not statistically significant in this analysis (−6.40, P = .326). Conclusions:  Failure to account for the lack of complete indoor plumbing and access to potable water in a pandemic may be an important determinant of the increased incidence of COVID-19 cases. Access to relevant information that is communicated in the language spoken by many reservation residents may play a key role in the spread of COVID-19 in some tribal communities. Household overcrowding does not appear to be associated with COVID-19 infections in our data at the current time. Previous studies have identified household plumbing and overcrowding, and language, as potential pandemic and disease infection risk factors. These risk factors persist. Funding investments in tribal public health and household infrastructure, as delineated in treaties and other agreements, are necessary to protect American Indian communities.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Rodriguez-Lonebear, Desi PhD; Barceló, Nicolás E. MD; Akee, Randall PhD; Carroll, Stephanie Russo DrPH, MPH

Abstract / Description:

Objective:  To determine the household and community characteristics most closely associated with variation in COVID-19 incidence on American Indian reservations in the lower 48 states. Design:  Multivariate analysis with population weights. Setting:  Two hundred eighty-seven American Indian Reservations and tribal homelands (in Oklahoma) and, as of April 10, 2020, 861 COVID-19 cases on these reservation lands. Main Outcome Measures:  The relationship between rate per 1000 individuals of publicly reported COVID-19 cases at the tribal reservation and/or community level and average household characteristics from the 2018 5-Year American Community Survey records. Results:  By April 10, 2020, in regression analysis, COVID-19 cases were more likely by the proportion of homes lacking indoor plumbing (10.83, P = .001) and were less likely according to the percentage of reservation households that were English-only (−2.43, P = .03). Household overcrowding measures were not statistically significant in this analysis (−6.40, P = .326). Conclusions:  Failure to account for the lack of complete indoor plumbing and access to potable water in a pandemic may be an important determinant of the increased incidence of COVID-19 cases. Access to relevant information that is communicated in the language spoken by many reservation residents may play a key role in the spread of COVID-19 in some tribal communities. Household overcrowding does not appear to be associated with COVID-19 infections in our data at the current time. Previous studies have identified household plumbing and overcrowding, and language, as potential pandemic and disease infection risk factors. These risk factors persist. Funding investments in tribal public health and household infrastructure, as delineated in treaties and other agreements, are necessary to protect American Indian communities.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Rodriguez-Lonebear, Desi PhD; Barceló, Nicolás E. MD; Akee, Randall PhD; Carroll, Stephanie Russo DrPH, MPH

Abstract / Description:

The COVID-19 pandemic and its link to Wuhan, the Chinese industrial city where the virus was first detected in December, has prompted harassment and racial violence against Asian Americans and concerns among experts of longer-lasting effects on emotional and mental health. Cynthia Choi, co-executive director of the San Francisco group Chinese for Affirmative Action, recalls one mother who contacted the group to report her child was being bullied at school and called “Coronavirus.” “She said that she noticed that her child was very depressed and very quiet and said that she did not want to be Asian,” Choi recalled. “So obviously there is a mental health impact.” Citing an “alarming escalation in xenophobia and bigotry resulting from the coronavirus/COVID-19 pandemic,” the organization joined with other groups in March to launch a reporting center to track harassment against Asian Americans.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Yaodong Gu

Abstract / Description:

In early May, a group of 20 Black mothers in rural Mississippi logged onto a virtual group therapy session to discuss the immense, compounding pressures of providing for their families and caring for their children during a global pandemic and historic unemployment crisis. It was the first time any of them had talked to a traditional mental health counselor, and the results were cathartic. “It’s important that we refuel — to be able to be better parents, to be able to be better daughters, to be better sisters and mothers,” says Dr. Erica Thompson, the executive director of Magnolia Medical Foundation, the community health nonprofit that ran the program. Magnolia Medical Foundation’s pilot series was designed to address the unique challenges facing Black mothers in recent months as they navigate a pandemic that has disproportionately claimed Black lives, an unemployment crisis that has exposed the failures of the American social safety net, and the explosion of a national movement combatting the systemic violence perpetrated against Black people.

Category: Cardio-Obstetrics, COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, Racism and Health

Date: 2020

Author: ABIGAIL ABRAMS

Abstract / Description:

In 2020, the South Korean movie Parasite became the only foreign-language film to ever win an Oscar for Best Picture. This historic first mirrors a broader trend towards acceptance and integration of Asian culture in the United States. Yet, despite our innumerable contributions to society, there remains little representation of Asians at the highest levels of government, business, academia, and popular media. Asian Americans are often stereotyped as perpetual foreigners because they are seen as inherently different.1 This has led to a sense of not fitting in, or “otherness”, as if our membership in America society were conditional. As COVID-19 sweeps the nation, this reality becomes painfully apparent. Asian healthcare workers on the front lines of the pandemic have been subjected to slurs and assaults. Nurses have been spat on, doctors have been told to “go back to f****** China”, and care by staff with “Asian appearances” has been refused.2 While Chinese people are ostensibly the target, the affected individuals have included Koreans, Filipinos, and other Asian ethnicities. In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic we see not only a rise in anti-Asian sentiment, but also a recapitulation of history.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, Racism and Health

Date: 2020

Author: H. Alexander Chen, Jessica Trinh, George P. Yang

Abstract / Description:

African Americans are overrepresented among reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and deaths. There are a multitude of factors that may explain the African American disparity in COVID-19 outcomes, including higher rates of comorbidities. While individual-level factors predictably contribute to disparate COVID-19 outcomes, systematic and structural factors have not yet been reported. It stands to reason that implicit biases may fuel the racial disparity in COVID-19 outcomes. To address this racial disparity, we must apply a health equity lens and disaggregate data explicitly for African Americans, as well as other populations at risk for biased treatment in the health-care system.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Adam J. Milam, Debra Furr-Holden, Jennifer Edwards-Johnson, Birgete Webb, John W. Patton III, Nnayereugo C. Ezekwemba, Lekiesha Porter, TomMario Davis, Marius Chukwurah, Antonio J. Webb, Kevin Simon, Geden Franck, Joshua Anthony, Gerald Onuoha II, Italo M. Brown, James T. Carson, and Brent C. Stephens

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Abstract / Description:

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) is an infectious respiratory disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2). On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID‐19 outbreak a pandemic. Currently, the United States has the highest number of officially reported COVID‐19 cases and deaths in the world. As of April 6, 2020, more than two‐thirds of rural US counties had been affected, including the rural southeastern states where lockdowns had been delayed.1, 2 Although all population groups are affected, racial/ethnic minorities have borne the brunt of the pandemic, especially African Americans.2 In Louisiana, 72% of deaths related to COVID‐19 are African Americans, who comprise only 32% of the population.3 Similar disproportionately high death rates in African American communities are being reported in other states like Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, and North Carolina.4  

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Lakshay Sood, Vanita Sood MD

Abstract / Description:

Differences in rates of comorbidities – health conditions that increase the risks following infection – are also a significant contributor to racial inequalities. Here we break down CDC data for three health conditions known to increase the risk associated with COVID – hypertension, obesity, and diabetes – by race and gender. All three are strongly related to diet and nutrition, and highlight the need for reform of the U.S. food system. The prevalence of each condition varies significantly across racial groups, and between men and women in complex ways; the gender gaps differ by race and the race gaps differ by gender. The differences across groups are, in many cases, quite large. Black women, for example, are twice as likely to be severely obese (with a Body Mass Index of at least 40), at a rate of 16%, as almost every other group. Hispanic men are twice as likely to be diagnosed with diabetes as white women. Men have much higher rates of uncontrolled hypertension than women of the same race: except among Black Americans, where hypertension prevalence is for both men and women.

Category: Black/African American CV, COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, Hispanic/Latino

Date: 2020

Author: Richard V. Reeves and Faith Smith

Abstract / Description:

Louisiana has the highest rate of deaths from COVID-19 in the nation and, according to Gov. John Bel Edwards, more than 70 percent of the people who have died so far were black. Black people make up just 32 percent of the state's population, according to the U.S. Census Bureau.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: TEGAN WENDLAND

Year: 2020

Abstract / Description:

The coronavirus has now infected more than 1.2 million people across the country, and African Americans, Hispanics and other minority populations are disproportionately being affected by the virus and the illness it causes: COVID-19.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Rachel Nania

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Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Oscar Calvillo-Argüelles MD, Heather J. Ross MD MHSc

Abstract / Description:

Importance Virus infection has been widely described as one of the most common causes of myocarditis. However, less is known about the cardiac involvement as a complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Objective To describe the presentation of acute myocardial inflammation in a patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who recovered from the influenzalike syndrome and developed fatigue and signs and symptoms of heart failure a week after upper respiratory tract symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participant This case report describes an otherwise healthy 53-year-old woman who tested positive for COVID-19 and was admitted to the cardiac care unit in March 2020 for acute myopericarditis with systolic dysfunction, confirmed on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, the week after onset of fever and dry cough due to COVID-19. The patient did not show any respiratory involvement during the clinical course. Exposure Cardiac involvement with COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures Detection of cardiac involvement with an increase in levels of N-terminal proñbrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity troponin T, echocardiography changes, and diffuse biventricular myocardial edema and late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results An otherwise healthy 53-year-old white woman presented to the emergency department with severe fatigue. She described fever and dry cough the week before. She was afebrile but hypotensive; electrocardiography showed diffuse ST elevation, and elevated high-sensitivity troponin T and NT-proBNP levels were detected. Findings on chest radiography were normal. There was no evidence of obstructive coronary disease on coronary angiography. Based on the COVID-19 outbreak, a nasopharyngeal swab was performed, with a positive result for SARS-CoV-2 on real-time reverse transcriptaseñpolymerase chain reaction assay. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed increased wall thickness with diffuse biventricular hypokinesis, especially in the apical segments, and severe left ventricular dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction of 35%). Short tau inversion recovery and T2-mapping sequences showed marked biventricular myocardial interstitial edema, and there was also diffuse late gadolinium enhancement involving the entire biventricular wall. There was a circumferential pericardial effusion that was most notable around the right cardiac chambers. These findings were all consistent with acute myopericarditis. She was treated with dobutamine, antiviral drugs (lopinavir/ritonavir), steroids, chloroquine, and medical treatment for heart failure, with progressive clinical and instrumental stabilization. Conclusions and Relevance This case highlights cardiac involvement as a complication associated with COVID-19, even without symptoms and signs of interstitial pneumonia.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Riccardo M. Inciardi, MD; Laura Lupi, MD; Gregorio Zaccone, MD; Leonardo Italia, MD; Michela Raffo, MD1; Daniela Tomasoni, MD1; Dario S. Cani, MD; Manuel Cerini, MD; Davide Farina, MD; Emanuele Gavazzi, MD; Roberto Maroldi, MD; Marianna Adamo, MD; Enrico Ammirati, MD, PhD; Gianfranco Sinagra, MD; Carlo M. Lombardi, MD; Marco Metra, MD

Abstract / Description:

Background: The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While systemic inflammation and pulmonary complications can result in significant morbidity and mortality, cardiovascular complications may also occur. Objective: This brief report evaluates cardiovascular complications in the setting of COVID-19 infection. Discussion: The current COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in over one million infected worldwide and thousands of death. The virus binds and enters through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). COVID-19 can result in systemic inflammation, multiorgan dysfunction, and critical illness. The cardiovascular system is also affected, with complications including myocardial injury, myocarditis, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, dysrhythmias, and venous thromboembolic events. Current therapies for COVID-19 may interact with cardiovascular medications. Conclusions: Emergency clinicians should be aware of these cardiovascular complications when evaluating and managing the patient with COVID-19

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Brit Long, MD, William J. Brady, MD, Alex Koyfman, MD, Michael Gottlieb, MD

Abstract / Description:

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that has significant implications for the cardiovascular care of patients. First, those with COVID-19 and preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD) have an increased risk of severe disease and death. Second, infection has been associated with multiple direct and indirect cardiovascular complications including acute myocardial injury, myocarditis, arrhythmias and venous thromboembolism. Third, therapies under investigation for COVID-19 may have cardiovascular side effects. Fourth, the response to COVID-19 can compromise the rapid triage of non-COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular conditions. Finally, the provision of cardiovascular care may place health care workers in a position of vulnerability as they become host or vectors of virus transmission. We hereby review the peer-reviewed and preprint literature pertaining to cardiovascular considerations related to COVID-19 and highlight gaps in knowledge that require further study pertinent to patients, health care workers, and health systems.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Elissa Driggin, MD; Mahesh V. Madhavan, MD; Behnood Bikdeli, MD MS; Taylor Chuich, PharmD; Justin Laracy, MD; Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, MD, MStat; Tyler S.Brown, MD; Caroline Der Nigoghossian, PharmD; David A. Zidar, MD, PhD; Jennifer Haythe MD, Daniel Brodie, MD; Joshua A. Beckman, MD; Ajay J.Kirtane, MD, SM; Gregg W.Stone, MD; Harlan M.Krumholz, MD, SM; Sahil A.Parikh, MD

Abstract / Description:

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that has significant implications for the cardiovascular care of patients. First, those with COVID-19 and pre-existing cardiovascular disease have an increased risk of severe disease and death. Second, infection has been associated with multiple direct and indirect cardiovascular complications including acute myocardial injury, myocarditis, arrhythmias, and venous thromboembolism. Third, therapies under investigation for COVID-19 may have cardiovascular side effects. Fourth, the response to COVID-19 can compromise the rapid triage of non-COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular conditions. Finally, the provision of cardiovascular care may place health care workers in a position of vulnerability as they become hosts or vectors of virus transmission. We hereby review the peer-reviewed and pre-print reports pertaining to cardiovascular considerations related to COVID-19 and highlight gaps in knowledge that require further study pertinent to patients, health care workers, and health system.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Elissa Driggin, Mahesh V. Madhavan, Behnood Bikdeli, Taylor Chuich, Justin Laracy, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Tyler S. Brown, Caroline Der Nigoghossian, David A. Zidar, Jennifer Haythe, Daniel Brodie, Joshua A. Beckman, Ajay J. Kirtane, Gregg W. Stone, Harlan M. Krumholz and Sahil A. Parikh

Abstract / Description:

Background and aims Many patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have underlying cardiovascular (CV) disease or develop acute cardiac injury during the course of the illness. Adequate understanding of the interplay between COVID-19 and CV disease is required for optimum management of these patients. Methods A literature search was done using PubMed and Google search engines to prepare a narrative review on this topic. Results Respiratory illness is the dominant clinical manifestation of COVID-19; CV involvement occurs much less commonly. Acute cardiac injury, defined as significant elevation of cardiac troponins, is the most commonly reported cardiac abnormality in COVID-19. It occurs in approximately 8ñ12% of all patients. Direct myocardial injury due to viral involvement of cardiomyocytes and the effect of systemic inflammation appear to be the most common mechanisms responsible for cardiac injury. The information about other CV manifestations in COVID-19 is very limited at present. Nonetheless, it has been consistently shown that the presence of pre-existing CV disease and/or development of acute cardiac injury are associated with significantly worse outcome in these patients. Conclusions Most of the current reports on COVID-19 have only briefly described CV manifestations in these patients. Given the enormous burden posed by this illness and the significant adverse prognostic impact of cardiac involvement, further research is required to understand the incidence, mechanisms, clinical presentation and outcomes of various CV manifestations in COVID-19 patients.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Manish Bansal

Abstract / Description:

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) may disproportionately affect people with cardiovascular disease. Concern has been aroused regarding a potential harmful effect of angiotensin-converting–enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) in this clinical context. METHODS Using an observational database from 169 hospitals in Asia, Europe, and North America, we evaluated the relationship of cardiovascular disease and drug therapy with in-hospital death among hospitalized patients with Covid-19 who were admitted between December 20, 2019, and March 15, 2020, and were recorded in the Surgical Outcomes Collaborative registry as having either died in the hospital or survived to discharge as of March 28, 2020. RESULTS Of the 8910 patients with Covid-19 for whom discharge status was available at the time of the analysis, a total of 515 died in the hospital (5.8%) and 8395 survived to discharge. The factors we found to be independently associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death were an age greater than 65 years (mortality of 10.0%, vs. 4.9% among those ≤65 years of age; odds ratio, 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60 to 2.41), coronary artery disease (10.2%, vs. 5.2% among those without disease; odds ratio, 2.70; 95% CI, 2.08 to 3.51), heart failure (15.3%, vs. 5.6% among those without heart failure; odds ratio, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.62 to 3.79), cardiac arrhythmia (11.5%, vs. 5.6% among those without arrhythmia; odds ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.33 to 2.86), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (14.2%, vs. 5.6% among those without disease; odds ratio, 2.96; 95% CI, 2.00 to 4.40), and current smoking (9.4%, vs. 5.6% among former smokers or nonsmokers; odds ratio, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.29 to 2.47). No increased risk of in-hospital death was found to be associated with the use of ACE inhibitors (2.1% vs. 6.1%; odds ratio, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.54) or the use of ARBs (6.8% vs. 5.7%; odds ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.74). CONCLUSIONS Our study confirmed previous observations suggesting that underlying cardiovascular disease is associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death among patients hospitalized with Covid-19. Our results did not confirm previous concerns regarding a potential harmful association of ACE inhibitors or ARBs with in-hospital death in this clinical context. (Funded by the William Harvey Distinguished Chair in Advanced Cardiovascular Medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital.)

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Mandeep R. Mehra, M.D., Sapan S. Desai, M.D., Ph.D., SreyRam Kuy, M.D., M.H.S., Timothy D. Henry, M.D., and Amit N. Patel, M.D.

Abstract / Description:

Importance Increasing numbers of confirmed cases and mortality rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are occurring in several countries and continents. Information regarding the impact of cardiovascular complication on fatal outcome is scarce. Objective To evaluate the association of underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) and myocardial injury with fatal outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants This retrospective single-center case series analyzed patients with COVID-19 at the Seventh Hospital of Wuhan City, China, from January 23, 2020, to February 23, 2020. Analysis began February 25, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures Demographic data, laboratory findings, comorbidities, and treatments were collected and analyzed in patients with and without elevation of troponin T (TnT) levels. Result Among 187 patients with confirmed COVID-19, 144 patients (77%) were discharged and 43 patients (23%) died. The mean (SD) age was 58.50 (14.66) years. Overall, 66 (35.3%) had underlying CVD including hypertension, coronary heart disease, and cardiomyopathy, and 52 (27.8%) exhibited myocardial injury as indicated by elevated TnT levels. The mortality during hospitalization was 7.62% (8 of 105) for patients without underlying CVD and normal TnT levels, 13.33% (4 of 30) for those with underlying CVD and normal TnT levels, 37.50% (6 of 16) for those without underlying CVD but elevated TnT levels, and 69.44% (25 of 36) for those with underlying CVD and elevated TnTs. Patients with underlying CVD were more likely to exhibit elevation of TnT levels compared with the patients without CVD (36 [54.5%] vs 16 [13.2%]). Plasma TnT levels demonstrated a high and significantly positive linear correlation with plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (??=?0.530, P?

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Tao Guo, MD; Yongzhen Fan, MD; Ming Chen, MD; Xiaoyan Wu, MD; Lin Zhang, MD; Tao He, MD; Hairong Wang, MD; Jing Wan, MD; Xinghuan Wang, MD; Zhibing Lu, MD

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Abstract / Description:

Advancing health equity has been a consistent theme in the life and work of Dr. Lauren Powell, PhD, MPA. The first head of TIME’S UP’s Foundation’s health care industry work and de Beaumont Foundation 40 Under 40 honoree most recently served as the director of the office of health equity in the Virginia Department of Health. Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, Dr. Powell is also working as a consultant to help the Commonwealth of Virginia address the public health crisis through a health equity lens.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Julia Haskins

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Abstract / Description:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the novel coronavirus causing the disease COVID-19, has rapidly transformed our lives. Fears of community spread of the virus have led policy makers to close schools and nonessential businesses and implement orders to shelter in place. While these efforts have slowed the spread of the virus, some parts of the country, including New York City and New Orleans, have nevertheless witnessed overwhelming increases in COVID-19 cases and related deaths. The burden of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality has disproportionately fallen on minority populations. Early in the pandemic, lower rates of COVID-19 testing were reported among minority communities. Now, emerging data illustrate that black and Hispanic Americans are dying at far higher rates from the novel coronavirus than any other groups in the nation.1,2 These disparities are just the most recent manifestation of centuries’ worth of racial and ethnic gaps in health outcomes.3

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Utibe R. Essien, MD, MPH; Atheendar Venkataramani, MD, PhD

Abstract / Description:

Income and poverty measures can indicate the extent to which a community may be able to successfully adhere to COVID-19 mitigation measures (such as “stay at home” and “quarantine family members who are sick”). Lower-income individuals are more likely to be living in crowded households where there are more people than rooms, making quarantining sick family members more difficult. Low-income individuals are more likely to be working in service positions on the front line of COVID-19 including as at-home health aides for seniors, grocery store clerks, and nannies, and may not be able to “stay at home.” Lower-income individuals are more likely to experience health conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes that may increase the likelihood of hospitalization and death among COVID-19 patients. There are a myriad of reasons why lower-income and poorer communities will be more vulnerable to the COVID-19 virus as explored in additional indicators on this webpage.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: The Data Center

Year: 2020

Abstract / Description:

The COVID‐19 pandemic has forced our society to come face to face with complex issues that were once theoretical but are now being played out in real time. As data from the pandemic accumulates, it is clear that COVID‐19 is impacting some parts of society more than others. Unfortunately, there is an almost complete overlap between COVID‐19 risk factors and conditions that are already represented as health disparities, such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, lung disease and immune disorders. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological pathways that link these diseases to COVID‐19 outcome. An increased awareness of the factors underlying this issue, both societal and medical, is needed to understand the long‐term implications and possible solutions needed going forward.  

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: John T. Moore, William Pilkington, Deepak Kumar

Abstract / Description:

As the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic spreads throughout the United States, evidence is mounting that racial and ethnic minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups are bearing a disproportionate burden of illness and death. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of COVID-19 patients at Sutter Health, a large integrated health system in northern California, to measure potential disparities. We used Sutter’s integrated electronic health record to identify adults with suspected and confirmed COVID-19, and we used multivariable logistic regression to assess risk of hospitalization, adjusting for known risk factors, such as race/ethnicity, sex, age, health, and socioeconomic variables. We analyzed 1,052 confirmed cases of COVID-19 from the period January 1–April 8, 2020. Among our findings, we observed that compared with non-Hispanic white patients, non-Hispanic African American patients had 2.7 times the odds of hospitalization, after adjustment for age, sex, comorbidities, and income. We explore possible explanations for this, including societal factors that either result in barriers to timely access to care or create circumstances in which patients view delaying care as the most sensible option. Our study provides real-world evidence of racial and ethnic disparities in the presentation of COVID-19.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Kristen M. J. Azar, Zijun Shen, Robert J. Romanelli, Stephen H. Lockhart, Kelly Smits, Sarah Robinson, Stephanie Brown, and Alice R. Pressman

Abstract / Description:

Recent data show that Black, Latino, indigenous and immigrant communities are disproportionately affected by COVID-19, due in large part to the persistent legacy of structural racism — practices and policies that systematically benefit white people and harm people of color. From the Bronx and Queens, New York to the Mission District in San Francisco, to the Navajo Nation and Black communities of New Orleans, Detroit and Oakland, the message is clear: COVID-19 highlights our societal failures at the intersections of public health, health care and social justice. If health inequities weren’t severe and oppressive enough, add on the layer of police brutality that takes Black lives on a regular basis. No matter where we look, our system has continually devalued Black bodies and lives.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, Equity

Date: 2020

Author: Zoë Julian, Rachel R. Hardeman and Ryan Huerto

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Dr. Keith Ferdinand

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Abstract / Description:

The coronavirus entered Milwaukee from a white, affluent suburb. Then it took root in the city’s black community and erupted. As public health officials watched cases rise in March, too many in the community shrugged off warnings. Rumors and conspiracy theories proliferated on social media, pushing the bogus idea that black people are somehow immune to the disease. And much of the initial focus was on international travel, so those who knew no one returning from Asia or Europe were quick to dismiss the risk. Then, when the shelter-in-place order came, there was a natural pushback among those who recalled other painful government restrictions — including segregation and mass incarceration — on where black people could walk and gather.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Akilah Johnson and Talia Buford

Year: 2020

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Abstract / Description:

When the Hualapai tribe imposed a stay-at-home order and closed its Skywalk, the horseshoe-shaped, glass-bottomed walkway that extends over the south rim of the Grand Canyon, last month, it gave its members an added layer of protection against the raging coronavirus. But it also deprived them of their primary source of revenue. In a Catch-22, by following the government’s health recommendations, the Hualapai denied themselves the ability to fund government-mandated services on its lands. For Native Americans, who, like other minority groups and those in lower-income communities, have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19, it’s a double whammy, said adjunct lecturer Eric Henson, who teaches the field research class “Native Americans in the 21st Century: Nation Building II.”

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Liz Mineo

Abstract / Description:

Petrona worked as a housekeeper until the state ordered the closure of all non-essential businesses to stop the spread of the coronavirus. Now the single mother of two young children with only a few dollars in savings and unable to qualify for unemployment because of her legal status, her main source of information is what she sees on her phone.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Simón Rios

Year: 2020

H

Abstract / Description:

In many Western states, as well as Arkansas which has a large Marshallese population, these communities have virus rates that far exceed their share of the population.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Anita Hofschneider

Abstract / Description:

Federal, state and local governments are struggling to identify best practices for controlling the spread of COVID-19 while minimizing the negative effects of sweeping public health interventions, especially for poor and marginalized communities, which may be hardest hit. Social distancing and sheltering in place have emerged as a key strategies for flattening the curve of the epidemic and mitigating impacts on already-stressed health care systems. Measures to keep people at least six feet apart as much as possible—by closing schools, limiting the operations of nonessential businesses, and urging or requiring people to work from home and avoid gatherings—mean that many people will be sheltering in place for weeks or months. As authorities implement restrictions on personal liberty in some of the areas hit particularly hard by COVID-19, the potential for discriminatory enforcement and police escalation may endanger the safety and civil rights of at-risk and traditionally marginalized populations.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Emily A. Benfer Lindsay F. Wiley

Abstract / Description:

Covid-19 is hitting black and brown communities especially hard. But many states aren't releasing or collecting the data to help fight back.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: LAURA BARR”N-L”PEZ, HOLLY OTTERBEIN and MAYA KING

Abstract / Description:

Early data shows the coronavirus is hitting black and brown Americans especially hard. But spotty government data collection and publication could prevent resources from flowing to the communities most ravaged by the pandemic.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: LAURA BARRÓN-LÓPEZ, HOLLY OTTERBEIN and MAYA KING

Abstract / Description:

More than half a million people living in the United States are experiencing homelessness. Every one of them is at a dramatically increased risk in this pandemic. This is true across the board: They’re more likely to catch the virus, to experience complications, and to die from it. The scope of the interventions needed to make sure this doesn’t happen is difficult to fully define, but experts say the need is immediate, and likely to get larger as we weather this crisis and the economic downturn that’s come with it.  

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Kat Eschner

Year: 2020

Abstract / Description:

What is already known about this topic? Population-based rates of laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)ñassociated hospitalizations are lacking in the United States. What is added by this report? COVID-NET was implemented to produce robust, weekly, age-stratified COVID-19ñassociated hospitalization rates. Hospitalization rates increase with age and are highest among older adults; the majority of hospitalized patients have underlying conditions. What are the implications for public health practice? Strategies to prevent COVID-19, including social distancing, respiratory hygiene, and face coverings in public settings where social distancing measures are difficult to maintain, are particularly important to protect older adults and those with underlying conditions. Ongoing monitoring of hospitalization rates is critical to understanding the evolving epidemiology of COVID-19 in the United States and to guide planning and prioritization of health care resources.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Shikha Garg, MD1,*; Lindsay Kim, MD1,*; Michael Whitaker, MPH1,2; Alissa OíHalloran, MSPH1; Charisse Cummings, MPH1,3; Rachel Holstein, MPH1,4; Mila Prill, MSPH1; Shua J. Chai, MD1; Pam D. Kirley, MPH5; Nisha B. Alden, MPH6; Breanna Kawasaki, MPH6; Kimberly Yousey-Hindes, MPH7; Linda Niccolai, PhD7; Evan J. Anderson, MD8,9,10; Kyle P. Openo, DrPH9,10,11; Andrew Weigel, MSW12; Maya L. Monroe, MPH13; Patricia Ryan, MS13; Justin Henderson, MPH14, Sue Kim, MPH14; Kathy Como-Sabetti, MPH15; Ruth Lynfield, MD15; Daniel Sosin, MD16; Salina Torres, PhD16; Alison Muse, MPH17; Nancy M. Bennett, MD18; Laurie Billing, MPH19; Melissa Sutton, MD20; Nicole West, MPH20; William Schaffner, MD21; H. Keipp Talbot, MD21; Clarissa Aquino22; Andrea George, MPH22; Alicia Budd, MPH1; Lynnette Brammer, MPH1; Gayle Langley, MD1; Aron J. Hall, DVM1; Alicia Fry, MD1

Abstract / Description:

The coronavirus pandemic is weakening the already-fragile rural health care safety net, and endangering health of rural residents, public health experts say.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Cliff Despres

Abstract / Description:

There is emerging evidence that many disadvantaged communities in the United States are being disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. Native American communities share some of the characteristics of other disadvantaged communities that might make them susceptible to greater impacts, but they also face unique challenges. Difficulties inherent in studying small population groups as well as differences in access to testing for COVID-19 present challenges to understanding the full impact of the epidemic on these communities

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Randall Akee

Abstract / Description:

There have been more than 1 million cases of COVID-19 in the U.S., leading to tens of thousands of deaths. Since the start of the pandemic, tens of millions have lost their jobs with many losing their health insurance too.  The impact on the nation’s minorities has been particularly harsh. So severe, in fact, that one physician suggested in a JAMA Viewpoint essay that the enormity of the pandemic’s impact on African Americans and other racial and ethnic minorities may create the will that finally leads to meaningful action on health inequity. “The U.S. has needed a trigger to fully address health care disparities; COVID-19 may be that bellwether event,” wrote AMA member Clyde Yancy, MD, Northwestern Medicine’s chief of cardiology and vice dean for diversity and inclusion at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Andis Robeznieks

Abstract / Description:

There have been more than 1 million cases of COVID-19 in the U.S., leading to tens of thousands of deaths. Since the start of the pandemic, tens of millions have lost their jobs with many losing their health insurance too.  

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Andis Robeznieks

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Abstract / Description:

The impact of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in the U.S. to date is staggering and Blacks across the country are being infected and dying at rates far in excess of Whites. Although health disparities have been part of America’s reality for decades, the pandemic has exposed the failure of the healthcare system to adequately serve minority patients. There are immediate solutions that can help to balance the inequity now and position us well for the future. Five suggested solutions are described which focus on greater inclusion of Blacks in activities such as clinical trials, encouraging community-based resources and providing comprehensive racial data on COVID-19 cases. We are not all in the fight against COVID-19 together. Solutions must be adopted to help to address the current disparities now as well as beyond the immediate crisis.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Charlotte Jones-Burton, MD, MS; Kemi Olugemo, MD; Judith R. Greener, PhD

Abstract / Description:

The COVID-19 virus is killing black residents in Cook County at disproportionately high rates, according to early data analyzed by WBEZ. While black residents make up only 23% of the population in the county, they account for 58% of the COVID-19 deaths. And half of the deceased lived in Chicago, according to data from the Cook County Medical Examiner’s office. 

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Elliott Ramos, María Inés Zamudio

Year: 2020

Abstract / Description:

Background There is limited data regarding the electrophysiological abnormalities and arrhythmias in children with COVID-19, including those associated with treatment using potentially pro-arrhythmic Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Azithromycin (AZN). Objectives To describe the electrophysiologic findings and arrhythmias associated with pediatric COVID-19 and its treatment. Methods A single center retrospective chart review was undertaken and included all patients with 1) symptoms of COVID-19, and 2) PCR (+) nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 who were placed on continuous telemetry for the duration of their hospitalization during March through May, 2020. Results Thirty-six patients were included in the study. Significant arrhythmias were found in 6 (non-sustained (ns) ventricular tachycardia in 5 and sustained atrial tachycardia in 1). All were self-resolving and half prompted prophylactic anti-arrhythmic therapy. Patients with significant arrhythmias were likely to have non-cardiac co-morbidities (4/6), but these were not more common than in patients without arrhythmias (20/30, p=1). The use of HCQ with or without AZN was associated with statistically significant QTc prolongation (411+19 msec vs 426+15 msec, p<0.0001). QTc was not statistically different in patients with and without arrhythmias (425+15 msec vs 425+15 msec, p=1). Conclusions In pediatric patients with PCR positive active COVID-19 infection, significant arrhythmias are infrequent, but more common than expected in a general pediatric population. Comorbidities are not more common in patients with arrhythmias than in patients without arrhythmias. COVID-19 treatment using HCQ is associated with QTc prolongation, but was not associated with arrhythmias in pediatric patients.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, General CV

Date: 2020

Author: Sharmeen Samuel, MD Richard A. Friedman, MD Chetan Sharma, MD Madhusudan Ganigara, MD Elizabeth Mitchell, MD Charles Schleien, MD Andrew D. Blaufox, MD.

Abstract / Description:

They hastily piled all the dumbbells and treadmills in the back of a gym to make room for 23 extra hospital beds. The beds arenít needed yet, but on a reservation where residents suffer high rates of diseases that exist throughout Indian Country, the Lummi Tribal Health Clinic is taking every precaution to prepare for the deadly coronavirus. Two thousand miles away at the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma, where 11 people have tested positive for the virus as of Friday and one has died, Chief Chuck Hoskin Jr. said: ìWeíre preparing for the worst.î Health workers plan to move hospital beds into a nearby university and a job-training facility shuttered because of the pandemic. ìThis is the worst public health crisis weíve had in a generation.î At the Navajo Nation that crosses three western states, 321 people were infected as of Saturday, an increase of 51 cases in a single day with 13 fatalities, the most in Indian Country. Police started issuing citations to anyone who violates a stay-at-home order.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Dana Hedgpeth, Darryl Fears and Gregory Scruggs

Abstract / Description:

NPR's Mary Louise Kelly talks with Dr. Loretta Christensen, Navajo Area chief medical officer at the Indian Health Service about the disproportionate impact of the coronavirus on Native Americans.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: NPR

Abstract / Description:

In the first six weeks of San Francisco’s shelter-in-place ordinance, continued spread of COVID-19 was increasingly concentrated among low-income Latinx people who were unable to work from home, according to results of a community-based screening initiative conducted in San Francisco’s Mission District in late April. A report of the results, from both nasal swab (PCR) and serological (antibody) tests, has been submitted to a peer-reviewed journal, and was also posted publicly on the medRxiv preprint server on June 17, 2020, due to the results’ importance for public health policy and affected communities.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Nicholas Weiler

Abstract / Description:

COVID-19 has laid bare and will likely exacerbate the glaring inequity faced by communities of color due to a “constellation” of factors. COVID-19 related health disparities, driven by economic and social circumstances such as living conditions (e.g., residential segregation, multigenerational households, overrepresentation in jails and prisons) and employment (e.g., greater numbers in service industries), are compounded by the physical and psychological effects of a legacy of discrimination and racism for these individuals.   Given Medicaid’s role in delivering care to low-income individuals, including many in Black and Hispanic communities, the program is uniquely situated to help mitigate the spread of COVID-19 and address related health disparities. Medicaid agencies can leverage existing and new authorities, enabled through recent COVID-19 federal regulatory flexibilities, to develop a broad plan for addressing disparities in the near-and long-term.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, Equity

Date: 2020

Author: Shilpa Patel Tricia McGinnis

Abstract / Description:

The breadth and expected duration of the COVID-19 pandemic brings the entire range of society’s institutional structures into sharp relief at once. Its pervasive impact stretches from the direct toll, chronicled daily in news reports tracking increased cases and deaths, to extensive economic and psychological distress from America’s efforts to mitigate the virus’ spread. The pandemic’s effects are connected. Mitigation efforts prevent disease spread, but they also disrupt economic activity, employment, and access to basic goods and services such as food, shelter, water, and utilities. These effects cascade, producing stress, anxiety, and strain in coping with daily life. All of these effects have health consequences. Indeed, viewed comprehensively, the pandemic’s overarching effect is to challenge the basic building blocks of a healthy society across all sectors. But amidst all of the tragedy and upheaval, we also can chart a unified course for a healthier, more equitable future.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Bob Hughes

Abstract / Description:

COVID-19 can affect anyone. But, for Latinos, the coronavirus pandemic is worsening health, social, and income inequities, and raising fears of disparities in disease rates, exposure, testing, and prevention.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Amelie Ramirez

Abstract / Description:

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19, the pathogen called SARS-CoV-2) has caused a worldwide outbreak since it occurred in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in late December, 2019.1–3 On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that COVID-19 is a ‘public-health emergency of international concern’. On March 11, the WHO declared the virus a global pandemic. As of 25 March 2020, more than 375 000 cases of COVID-19 had been reported, and over 16 000 people had lost their lives, and this number is still increasing rapidly. Therefore, global research actions on COVID-19 are desperately needed to meet this unprecedented challenge. The largest cohort study to date of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 showed that in-hospital death was higher in patients with diabetes or coronary heart disease, and increased high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I during hospitalization was found in more than half of those who died.4 It is worth noting that the acute and chronic cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 need to be addressed.5,6 There are, however, only limited published data concerning cardiovascular presentations in the wake of viral epidemics. Currently, a total of 16 articles were found involving COVID-19 and cardiovascular diseases in the WHO database of publications on COVID-19, with the keywords of cardiovascular/myocardial/cardiac/heart.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Yaling Han

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Abstract / Description:

As the U.S. Government continues to push back against the economic downturn and the spread of COVID-19, disadvantaged groups—such as Latinos—aren’t receiving an equitable share. The recently passed $484 billion stimulus package will give millions of Americans and U.S. businesses with economic relief, in combination with past relief legislation. However, the money isn’t reaching workers who need it the most, like Latino immigrants.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, Hispanic/Latino

Date: 2020

Author: Josh McCormack

Abstract / Description:

Four weeks ago, Latinos comprised 14 percent of Chicago’s coronavirus cases and 9 percent of the deaths. Now, it’s 37 percent of the cases and 25 percent of the deaths — in a city where 29 percent of the population is Hispanic.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, Hispanic/Latino

Date: 2020

Author: Fran Spielman and Tina Sfondeles

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Abstract / Description:

It was a variation on what has become a grim demographic theme, and not just in California. Infections among Latinos have far outpaced the rest of the nation, a testament to the makeup of the nation’s essential work force as the American epidemic has surged yet again in the last couple of weeks. Latinos in the United States are hardly a cultural monolith, and there is no evidence that any ethnic group is inherently more vulnerable to the virus than others are. But in the last two weeks, counties across the country where at least a quarter of the population is Latino have recorded an increase of 32 percent in new cases, compared to a 15 percent increase for all other counties, a Times analysis shows.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Shawn Hubler, Thomas Fuller, Anjali Singhvi and Juliette Love

Abstract / Description:

Lansing — At least 40% of those killed by the novel coronavirus in Michigan so far are black, a percentage that far exceeds the proportion of African Americans in the Detroit region and state. The first statewide release of mortality by race in Michigan, among the first in the nation, suggests that the actual percentage of blacks killed could be significantly higher — the race of nearly a third killed has yet to be disclosed. In Michigan, just 14% of the population is black. And while the coronavirus outbreak has been centered in Metro Detroit, African Americans make up less than a quarter of the six-county metropolitan area.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Craig Mauger and Christine MacDonald

Year: 2020

Abstract / Description:

Among the American workforce, just 16.2% of Hispanic workers and 19.7% of black Americans are able to work from home, while about 30% of whites and 37% of Asian-Americans can.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Chris Moody

Year: 2020

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Abstract / Description:

The National Indian Health Board is leading a national effort to advocate and secure resources for Tribes to respond to COVID-19. NIHB seeks to ensure that the Tribes remain informed on COVID 19, have the resources and assistance needed to respond to the pandemic, and that the Congress and Administration understand and address Tribal needs and priorities. NIHB also aims to create resources that will be informative and helpful to Tribes and Tribal members. NIHB believes that this coordinated national response is part of its sacred mission to serve the Tribes and help maintain the safety and well-being of Tribal citizens.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: National Indian Health Board

Abstract / Description:

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is novel, but pandemic threats to indigenous peoples are anything but new. Diseases like measles, smallpox and the Spanish flu have decimated Native American communities ever since the arrival of the first European colonizers. Now COVID-19 is having similarly devastating impacts in Indian country. Some reservations are reporting infection rates many times higher than those observed in the general U.S. population.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Lindsey Schneider, Joshua Sbicca, and Stephanie Malin

Abstract / Description:

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is novel, but pandemic threats to indigenous peoples are anything but new. Diseases like measles, smallpox and the Spanish flu have decimated Native American communities ever since the arrival of the first European colonizers. Now COVID-19 is having similarly devastating impacts in Indian country. Some reservations are reporting infection rates many times higher than those observed in the general U.S. population. We are social scientists who study many aspects of environmental justice, including the politics of food access and food sovereignty, the impacts of extractive resource industries like uranium and fossil fuels, and how Indigenous communities navigate relationships with state and federal governments to maintain their traditional practices. As we see it, Native American communities face structural and historical obstacles related to settler colonial legacies that make it hard for them to counter the pandemic, even by drawing on innovative indigenous survival strategies.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, Native American/American Indian CV

Date: 2020

Author: Lindsey Schneider, Joshua Sbicca, and Stephanie Malin

Abstract / Description:

Native Americans across the U.S. are struggling to battle the coronavirus pandemic, as decades of poverty, poor health care and pre-existing medical conditions leave them vulnerable to high rates of infection. Driving the news: The Navajo Nation, which stretches across three states and has been especially affected, is under its strictest weekend lockdown since the pandemic was declared, after a spike in cases, The Navajo Times reports. All gas stations and grocery stores must remain closed and essential workers have been told to stay home until the order expires on Monday at 5 a.m.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Rashaan Ayesh

Abstract / Description:

Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders have become infected with the coronavirus at higher rates than other minority groups, including high-risk African Americans and American Indians in western states, according to the University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine. In California, with the second-largest population of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders outside Hawaii, the group had the highest rate of COVID-19 infections at 217.7 cases per 100,000, compared to all confirmed cases statewide at 62.4. In Utah, the group’s infection rate was 197.6 versus 142.2 for the total population, and Washington’s King County reported a rate of 189.5 cases per 100,000, compared to 182.1, according to Keawe‘aimoku Kaho­lokula, professor and chairman of Native Hawaiian Health at JABSOM, which examined data released by several mainland states with large populations of Polynesians.

Category: Asian/Pacific Islander CV, COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Kristen Consillio

Abstract / Description:

In an effort to curb the rapid spread of the coronavirus in the Navajo Nation, the Navajo Department of Health issued an emergency public health order on April 17 mandating the use of masks outside the home, adding to existing orders that include sheltering in place and nightly and weekend curfews. Native American communities have been hit particularly hard by coronavirus, the Navajo Nation the worst of all. As of April 18, the Nation, which spans parts of Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah, had 1,197 confirmed cases and 44 deaths. Were it a US state, it would fall at No. 3 for the number of confirmed coronavirus infections per capita, behind New York and New Jersey. And Navajo Nation President Jonathan Nez warns that the disease’s peak could still be weeks away.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Rebecca Jennings

Year: 2020

Abstract / Description:

Every day the president of the Navajo Nation provides a coronavirus update, and every day there’s more bad news. The Native American tribe now has the highest per-capita Covid-19 infection rate after only New York and New Jersey, and the spread is not slowing.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Nina Lakhani

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Abstract / Description:

As a graduate student, Ira Memaj began exploring the health disparities that impact many Black Americans. The Detroit grown researcher’s first project was geared to investigating chemo-resistance in ovarian cancer cells leading her to produce over 16 publications in gynecological oncology including ovarian cancer, adhesions, and fibroids. This then inspired to her work at Wayne State University School of Medicine where she was part of a team that patented an antibody, CD11b, as a possible therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Brittany Chambers

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Abstract / Description:

I lay in bed, exhausted after a long day of seeing patients, helping convert our federally qualified health center to telemedicine, and trying to make sense of seemingly conflicting information communicated by the CDC and other government agencies. It was early April, and the frightening preliminary numbers illustrating the disproportionate effect of COVID-19 on black and brown communities(www.lohud.com) weighed heavily on my heart. As a family physician serving an ethnically diverse community in a predominantly white state, I worried about how this virus would affect my patients in the coming weeks and months, and whether their experiences would be documented equitably.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, Equity

Date: 2020

Author: Marie-Elizabeth Ramas, M.D

Abstract / Description:

More than 28% of people diagnosed with COVID-19 in the United States are Hispanic, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Despite that percentage and the fact that Latinx are the largest racial marginalized group in the United States, the effect of COVID-19 on this community has not been widely addressed, said Aletha Maybank, MD, MPH, chief health equity officer and group vice president of the AMA.  

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Marc Zarefsky

Abstract / Description:

The need for the nation to move forward on improving health equity is demonstrated by the dramatically disproportionate impact the COVID-19 pandemic has had on racial and ethnic minoritized communities, the AMA told Congress. “The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed starkly the disproportionate impact of the virus on communities of color,” the AMA told the U.S. House Ways and Means Committee. “The causes of the disproportionate impact are rooted in this country’s historical and structural racism and the social, economic, and health inequities that have resulted, and continue to result in, adverse health outcomes.”

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Andis Robeznieks

Abstract / Description:

Importance  Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached a pandemic level. Coronaviruses are known to affect the cardiovascular system. We review the basics of coronaviruses, with a focus on COVID-19, along with their effects on the cardiovascular system. Observations  Coronavirus disease 2019 can cause a viral pneumonia with additional extrapulmonary manifestations and complications. A large proportion of patients have underlying cardiovascular disease and/or cardiac risk factors. Factors associated with mortality include male sex, advanced age, and presence of comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases. Acute cardiac injury determined by elevated high-sensitivity troponin levels is commonly observed in severe cases and is strongly associated with mortality. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is also strongly associated with mortality. Conclusions and Relevance  Coronavirus disease 2019 is associated with a high inflammatory burden that can induce vascular inflammation, myocarditis, and cardiac arrhythmias. Extensive efforts are underway to find specific vaccines and antivirals against SARS-CoV-2. Meanwhile, cardiovascular risk factors and conditions should be judiciously controlled per evidence-based guidelines.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Mohammad Madjid, MD, MS; Payam Safavi-Naeini, MD; Scott D. Solomon, MD; Orly Vardeny, PharmD

Year: 2020

Abstract / Description:

Importance  Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached a pandemic level. Coronaviruses are known to affect the cardiovascular system. We review the basics of coronaviruses, with a focus on COVID-19, along with their effects on the cardiovascular system. Observations  Coronavirus disease 2019 can cause a viral pneumonia with additional extrapulmonary manifestations and complications. A large proportion of patients have underlying cardiovascular disease and/or cardiac risk factors. Factors associated with mortality include male sex, advanced age, and presence of comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases. Acute cardiac injury determined by elevated high-sensitivity troponin levels is commonly observed in severe cases and is strongly associated with mortality. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is also strongly associated with mortality. Conclusions and Relevance  Coronavirus disease 2019 is associated with a high inflammatory burden that can induce vascular inflammation, myocarditis, and cardiac arrhythmias. Extensive efforts are underway to find specific vaccines and antivirals against SARS-CoV-2. Meanwhile, cardiovascular risk factors and conditions should be judiciously controlled per evidence-based guidelines.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, General CV

Date: 2020

Author: Mohammad Madjid, MD, MS; Payam Safavi-Naeini, MD; Scott D. Solomon, MD; Orly Vardeny, PharmD

Abstract / Description:

The first thing Dr. Ernest Patti noticed when he stepped into the emergency department at St. Barnabas Hospital in the Bronx for his weekend shift was the sound. An unusually loud cacophony of beepers, alarms and the mechanical gasps of ventilators filled the air. "The level of noise was unlike anything I've ever heard in the past," the senior attending physician told ABC News. As he began his rounds last weekend, Patti quickly realized it was going to be a ruthless shift. He had begun treating coronavirus patients in mid-March, but now the hospital seemed on the verge of being overrun.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Evan Simon and Stephanie Ebbs

Abstract / Description:

The ongoing Covid-19 outbreak has brought increased incidents of racism, discrimination, and violence against “Asians,” particularly in the United States, with reports of hate crimes of over 100 per day. Since January 2020, many Asian Americans have reported suffering racial slurs, wrongful workplace termination, being spat on, physical violence, extreme physical distancing, etc., as media and government officials increasingly stigmatize and blame Asians for the spread of Covid-19. The links with social media are increasingly evident, as anti-Asian sentiment increases, with reports of anti-Asian sentiment spreading and Asian-Americans fighting hate via social media. Using integrated threat theory, this study explores the links between prejudice/hate toward Asians-Americans, in particular Chinese, and social media use.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Stephen M. Croucher, Thao Nguyen, and Diyako Rahmani

Abstract / Description:

What is already known about this topic? Published reports from China and Italy suggest that risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease include underlying health conditions, but data describing underlying health conditions among U.S. COVID-19 patients have not yet been reported. What is added by this report? Based on preliminary U.S. data, persons with underlying health conditions such as diabetes mellitus, chronic lung disease, and cardiovascular disease, appear to be at higher risk for severe COVID-19ñassociated disease than persons without these conditions. What are the implications for public health practice? Strategies to protect all persons and especially those with underlying health conditions, including social distancing and handwashing, should be implemented by all communities and all persons to help slow the spread of COVID-19.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: CDC COVID-19 Response Team

Abstract / Description:

This report provides a weekly summary of deaths with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by select geographic and demographic variables. In this release, counts of deaths are provided by the race and Hispanic origin of the decedent. Topics will be added to the release as they become available. These provisional counts are based on a current flow of mortality data in the National Vital Statistics System. National provisional counts include deaths occurring within the 50 states and the District of Columbia that have been received and coded as of the date specified. Data shown on this page may be incomplete and will likely not include all deaths that occurred during a given time period, especially for the more recent time periods. Data on this page are revised weekly and may increase or decrease as new and updated death certificate data are received from the states by NCHS. COVID-19 death counts shown here may differ from other published sources, as data currently are lagged by an average of 1ñ2 weeks.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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Abstract / Description:

There are sufficient data demonstrating that coexisting conditions in patients with Covid-19 influence clinical outcomes and that older age and male sex are associated with a greater risk of death. But despite disproportionately higher rates of Covid-19 infection, hospitalization, and death in racial and ethnic minority groups, the direct effects of genetic or biologic host factors remain unknown.1 As we strive to overcome the social and structural causes of health care disparities, we must recognize the underrepresentation of minority groups in Covid-19 clinical trials. Although the Food and Drug Administration hailed remdesivir as the standard of care for Covid-19 and is actively distributing supplies throughout the United States, data supporting the drug’s efficacy and safety in minority groups are limited. Data on race and ethnicity were not provided for the 53 patients treated with remdesivir under the “compassionate use” program.2 Though we acknowledge that these early results were obtained from a limited data set, Black Americans accounted for only about 20% of the 1063 patients in the placebo-controlled Adaptive Covid-19 Treatment Trial (ACTT-1) funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)3 and 11% of the 397 patients randomly assigned to 5 or 10 days of remdesivir in the Gilead-funded study (GS-U.S.-540-5773).4 The proportions of Latinx and Native American patients were provided only for ACTT-1 and were 23% and 0.7%, respectively.

Category: Clinical trials, COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Daniel B. Chastain, Pharm.D., Sharmon P. Osae, Pharm.D., Andrés F. Henao-Martínez, M.D., Carlos Franco-Paredes, M.D., M.P.H., Joeanna S. Chastain, Pharm.D., and Henry N. Young, Ph.D.

Abstract / Description:

There are sufficient data demonstrating that coexisting conditions in patients with Covid-19 influence clinical outcomes and that older age and male sex are associated with a greater risk of death. But despite disproportionately higher rates of Covid-19 infection, hospitalization, and death in racial and ethnic minority groups, the direct effects of genetic or biologic host factors remain unknown.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Daniel B. Chastain, Pharm.D., Sharmon P. Osae, Pharm.D., Andrés F. Henao-Martínez, M.D., Carlos Franco-Paredes, M.D., M.P.H., Joeanna S. Chastain, Pharm.D., and Henry N. Young, Ph.D.

Abstract / Description:

Outbreaks create fear, and fear is a key ingredient for racism and xenophobia to thrive. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has uncovered social and political fractures within communities, with racialised and discriminatory responses to fear, disproportionately affecting marginalised groups. Throughout history, infectious diseases have been associated with othering.1 Following the spread of COVID-19 from Wuhan, China, discrimination towards Chinese people has increased. This includes individual acts of microaggression or violence, to collective forms, for example Chinese people being barred from establishments.2 Rather than being an equaliser, given its ability to affect anyone, COVID-19 policy responses have disproportionately affected people of colour and migrantsópeople who are over-represented in lower socioeconomic groups, have limited health-care access, or work in precarious jobs. This is especially so in resource-poor settings that lack forms of social protection. Self-isolation is often not possible, leading to higher risk of viral spread. Ethnic minority groups are also at greater risk because of comorbiditiesófor example, high rates of hypertension in Black populations3 and diabetes in south Asians.4 Furthermore, migrants, particularly those without documents, avoid hospitals for fear of identification and reporting, ultimately presenting late with potentially more advanced disease.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Delan Devakumar Geordan Shannon Sunil S Bhopal Ibrahim Abubakar

Abstract / Description:

Publicly available data on racial and ethnic disparities related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are now surfacing, and these data suggest that the novel virus has disproportionately sickened Hispanic communities in the United States. We discuss why Hispanic communities are highly vulnerable to COVID-19 and how adaptations were made to existing infrastructure for Penn State Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) and Better Together REACH (a community–academic coalition using grant funds from Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health) to address these needs. We also describe programming to support COVID-19 efforts for Hispanic communities by using chronic disease prevention programs and opportunities for replication across the country.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: William A. Calo, PhD, JD; Andrea Murray, MPH; Erica Francis, MS; Madeline Bermudez; Jennifer Kraschnewski, MD, MPH

Abstract / Description:

Parts of the U.S. health system have been badly battered financially during the COVID-19 crisis, including hospitals that had to cancel lucrative elective surgery and cashstarved clinics that furloughed staff as reimbursed routine visits dried up while uncompensated care surged. But healthcare is not like retailing or the hospitality industry. Total health industry revenue is likely to rise this year at least modestly, and count for a significantly higher proportion of GDP. In total revenue and employment terms, it should be relatively easy to get back to normal. In the current situation, the real challenge is to make sure the health system does not return to normal.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, Equity

Date: 2020

Author: Stuart M. Butler

Abstract / Description:

As the COVID-19 outbreak originating in China has spread to populations across all continents except Antarctica, racism and discrimination against Chinese-American people has also increased. Researchers from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) and University of Maryland, College Park (UMD) just received a Rapid Response Research (RAPID) grant from the National Science Foundation to examine intensified discrimination that Chinese-American families are facing in the United States with the current COVID-19 outbreak.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND BALTIMORE COUNTY

Abstract / Description:

Importance  It is uncertain whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a higher risk of ischemic stroke than would be expected from a viral respiratory infection. Objective  To compare the rate of ischemic stroke between patients with COVID-19 and patients with influenza, a respiratory viral illness previously associated with stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants  This retrospective cohort study was conducted at 2 academic hospitals in New York City, New York, and included adult patients with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with COVID-19 from March 4, 2020, through May 2, 2020. The comparison cohort included adults with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with influenza A/B from January 1, 2016, through May 31, 2018 (spanning moderate and severe influenza seasons). Exposures  COVID-19 infection confirmed by evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in the nasopharynx by polymerase chain reaction and laboratory-confirmed influenza A/B. Main Outcomes and Measures  A panel of neurologists adjudicated the primary outcome of acute ischemic stroke and its clinical characteristics, mechanisms, and outcomes. We used logistic regression to compare the proportion of patients with COVID-19 with ischemic stroke vs the proportion among patients with influenza.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, General CV

Date: 2020

Author: Alexander E. Merkler, MD; Neal S. Parikh, MD, MS; Saad Mir, MD; Ajay Gupta, MD, MS; Hooman Kamel, MD, MS; Eaton Lin, MD; Joshua Lantos, MD; Edward J. Schenck, MD; Parag Goyal, MD; Samuel S. Bruce, MD, MA; Joshua Kahan, MBBS, PhD1; Kelsey N. Lansdale, BA; Natalie M. LeMoss, BS; Santosh B. Murthy, MD, MPH; Philip E. Stieg, PhD, MD; Matthew E. Fink, MD; Costantino Iadecola, MD; Alan Z. Segal, MD; Marika Cusick, MS; Thomas R. Campion Jr, PhD, MS; Ivan Diaz, PhD; Cenai Zhang, MS; Babak B. Navi, MD, MS

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Abstract / Description:

But we were indeed in the wilderness. On April 1, hardly any states, counties, hospitals, or private labs had released the racial demographics of the people who had been tested for, infected with, hospitalized with, or killed by COVID-19. Five days later, citing racial disparities in infection or death rates from five states or counties and the racial demographics of the worst coronavirus hot spots, I speculated that America was facing a racial pandemic within the viral pandemic. But we needed more racial data to know for sure.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Ibram X. Kendi

Abstract / Description:

Current protests throughout the United States are highlighting the history of marginalization of and discrimination against Black Americans, including 250 years of slavery, 100 years of Jim Crow laws, high rates of incarceration, and unanswered calls for action after police shootings of unarmed Black Americans. Simultaneously, disparities in Covid-19 infections and deaths are laying bare the underlying structural racism that protestors seek to disrupt. Structural racism — the ways in which societies foster discrimination through mutually reinforcing inequitable systems — has received little attention as a determinant of population health, in part because there is a perception that limited empirical research has been done on the subject.1 Yet a meta-analysis of 293 studies revealed that racism is significantly associated with poorer mental and physical health.2 Structural racism exists because discriminatory practices in one sector reinforce parallel practices in other sectors, creating interconnected systems that embed inequities in laws and policies.1 Consequently, education, employment, housing, credit markets, health care, and the justice system mutually reinforce practices that allow or encourage discriminatory beliefs, stereotypes, and unequal distribution of resources.1,2

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Leonard E. Egede, M.D., and Rebekah J. Walker, Ph.D.

Abstract / Description:

The coronavirus pandemic has had a devastating impact on people of color. Since the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, one fact has been proven correct time and again: Minority groups face a higher risk of infection and the many burdens associated. This fact has been proven in a recent study from Massachusetts General Hospital. “Radiologists from saw these disparities firsthand in April among patients admitted to the hospital with confirmed COVID-19 infection, and at one of the hospital’s respiratory infection clinics in Chelsea, a city just north of Boston that is home to a predominantly Spanish-speaking Hispanic community,” the researchers write. “A significant proportion of the patients who visited the Chelsea clinic had COVID-19, and the level of disease the radiologists observed on chest imaging was markedly more severe than that seen at other respiratory infection clinics in Boston. “These disparities were more evident among patients admitted to the hospital with confirmed COVID-19 infection.”

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Pramod Sukumaran

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Abstract / Description:

Social distancing to minimize transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is virtually impossible in correctional facilities, whose residents live in close confinement, share toilets and showers, and typically sit shoulder-to-shoulder in mess halls.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Rita Rubin, MA

Abstract / Description:

Our ongoing Color of Coronavirus project monitors how and where COVID-19 mortality is inequitably impacting certain communities—to guide policy and community responses to these disproportionate deaths. The coronavirus has claimed nearly 133,000 American lives through July 7, 2020. We know the race and ethnicity for 91% of these deaths. Our latest update reveals continued wide disparities by race, most dramatically for Black and Indigenous Americans. New with this release, we have also adjusted the data for age, a common and important tool that health researchers use to compare diseases that affect age groups differently. The result? Even larger mortality disparities observed between Black, Indigenous, and other populations of color relative to Whites—with the greatest rise in mortality among Indigenous and Latino Americans (who are the youngest populations of all race groups).

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: APM RESEARCH LAB STAFF

Abstract / Description:

Objectives The aim of this evidence-based theoretically informed essay is to provide an overview of how and why the COVID-19 outbreak is particularly detrimental for the health of older Black and Latinx adults. Methods We draw upon current events, academic literature, and numerous data sources to illustrate how biopsychosocial factors place older adults at higher risk for COVID-19 relative to younger adults, and how structural racism magnifies these risks for older Black and Latinx adults. Results We identify three proximate mechanisms through which structural racism operates as a fundamental cause of racial/ethnic inequalities in COVID-19 burden among older adults: (1) Risk of exposure; (2) Weathering processes; and (3) Health care access and quality. Discussion While the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented crisis, the racial/ethnic health inequalities among older adults it has exposed are long-standing and deeply rooted in structural racism within American society. This knowledge presents both challenges and opportunities for researchers and policymakers as they seek to address the needs of older adults. It is imperative that federal, state, and local governments collect and release comprehensive data on the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths by race/ethnicity and age to better gauge the impact of outbreak across minority communities. We conclude with a discussion of incremental steps to be taken to lessen the disproportionate burden of COVID-19 among older Black and Latinx adults, as well as the need for transformative actions that address structural racism in order to achieve population health equity.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Marc A Garcia, Ph.D, Patricia A Homan, Ph.D, Catherine García, Ph.D, Tyson H Brown, Ph.D

Abstract / Description:

It will take more than duty, however, to ensure that clinical trials to establish vaccine safety and effectiveness actually include representative numbers of African Americans, Latinos and other racial minorities, as well as older people and those with underlying medical conditions, such as kidney disease. Black and Latino people have been three times as likely as white people to become infected with COVID-19 and twice as likely to die, according to federal data obtained via a lawsuit by The New York Times. Asian Americans appear to account for fewer cases but have higher rates of death. Eight out of 10 COVID deaths reported in the U.S. have been of people ages 65 and older. And the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warns that chronic kidney disease is among the top risk factors for serious infection.

Category: Clinical trials, COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: JoNel Aleccia

Abstract / Description:

The new coronavirus doesn't discriminate. But physicians in public health and on the front lines say that in the response to the pandemic, they can already see the emergence of familiar patterns of racial and economic bias. In one analysis, it appears doctors may be less likely to refer African Americans for testing when they show up for care with signs of infection. The bio-tech data firm Rubix Life Sciences, based in Boston, reviewed recent billing information in several states, and found that an African American with symptoms like cough and fever was less likely to be given one of the scarce coronavirus tests.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Blake Farmer

Year: 2020

Abstract / Description:

In Kayenta, Arizona ó the northwest corner of the Navajo Nation ó the streets are eerily quiet. Famous landmarks like Antelope Canyon and Monument Valley are empty. Flea markets that are normally bustling hubs of commerce in this remote area are now closed. But for those living in and around Kayenta, there is still water to haul, wood to chop, and sheep to herd at home. The town of 5,189 is taking stricter measures for social distancing since 18 cases of Covid-19, the disease caused by the novel coronavirus, were confirmed over the past two weeks. On Saturday, Navajo Nation President Jonathan Nez issued a stay-at-home order, prohibiting residents of the countryís largest Indian reservation ó spanning 27,413 square miles from Arizona to Utah to New Mexico ó from leaving their homes unless it is for food or medicine. Tribal police are already patrolling grocery store parking lots, enforcing social distancing and purchasing limits while children shop for their elders who wait in the car. The Navajo Nation isnít the only Indian community to feel the impact of the coronavirus. The first person in Oklahoma to die from Covid-19 complications was a 55-year-old citizen of the Cherokee Nation. A Northern Arapaho tribal member on the Wind River Indian Reservation in Wyoming tested positive on Saturday and the tribe has declared a state of emergency for the reservation that spans over 2.2 million acres. Last weekend, Minnesota Lieutenant Governor Peggy Flanagan, of the White Earth Band of Ojibwe, lost her brother to Covid-19 after he was already battling a cancer diagnosis.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Maria Givens

Abstract / Description:

The new coronavirus, which causes the disease COVID-19, continues to spread quickly, threatening the health and economy of the United States. Since January, more than 8,300 Americans in 50 states; Washington, D.C.; and three territories have tested positive for the COVID-19 virus. And many more cases have undoubtedly not been discovered due to a lack of testing. The outbreak of this deadly respiratory illness is especially worrisome for Black, Latinx, and other vulnerable communities. These communities are disproportionately uninsured or underinsured and have fewer financial resources and employment benefits with which to weather this major public health emergency. Nothing demonstrates this vulnerability more vividly than the dramatic and persistent intergenerational racial wealth gap. The COVID-19 pandemic is another stark reminder that the next administration must address wealth inequality and make asset security a top priority.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Danyelle Solomon and Darrick Hamilton

Abstract / Description:

Gwen Darien is a three-time cancer survivor. When she was thirty-five, she was diagnosed with lymphoma; in her fifties, she was treated for breast cancer; two years ago, she learned that she had endometrial cancer. With curly black hair and an indomitable personality, she embodies vibrancy, courage, and resilience. Even so, last month, when she received a call from her doctor’s office about an upcoming visit, she decided to postpone it indefinitely. “I was very unnerved,” she told me. “I thought about all the risks. First, I’d have to get transportation—Uber or train or subway. Then I’d have to walk into the doctor’s office, near a hospital with covid-19 patients. Then I’d have to be in the office with other people, even if they are socially distanced. I’d much rather just wait.”

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Dhruv Khullar

Abstract / Description:

As Americans struggle with the protracted impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is increasingly difficult to avoid some sobering truths. Although comprehensive data on COVID-19 cases by poverty, race, and ethnicity remain limited, every day new numbers emerge showing the virus’ disproportionate toll on the poor, the marginalized, and communities of color. For example, dramatically increased COVID-19 mortality has been observed in US counties with the highest poverty rates (19.3 deaths per 1,000 in counties with ≥20 percent living in poverty, compared to a range of 6.5 to 11.1 deaths per 1,000 in higher income counties) and in counties with the largest percentage of persons of color (17.1 deaths per 1,000). In 85 percent of states (17 of 20) with reliable COVID-19 data on race and ethnicity, black Americans had higher than expected COVID-19 diagnosis rates based on their share of the population within the state—and in 70 percent (14 of 20 states), black Americans were more likely to die from COVID-19, according to our analysis of The COVID Tracking Project data as of June 18, 2020.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, Equity

Date: 2020

Author: Nadia J. Siddiqui Dennis P. Andrulis Derek A. Chapman Kimberly Wilson Beth Jacob Gail C. Christopher Naima Wong Croal

Abstract / Description:

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted and devastated the world. As the infection spreads, the projected mortality and economic devastation are unprecedented. In particular, racial and ethnic minorities may be at a particular disadvantage as many already assume the status of a marginalized group. Black Americans have a long-standing history of disadvantage and are in a vulnerable position to experience the impact of this crisis and the myth of Black immunity to COVID-19 is detrimental to promoting and maintaining preventative measures. We are the first to present the earliest available data in the peer-reviewed literature on the racial and ethnic distribution of COVID-19-confirmed cases and fatalities in the state of Connecticut. We also seek to explode the myth of Black immunity to the virus. Finally, we call for a National Commission on COVID-19 Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities to further explore and respond to the unique challenges that the crisis presents for Black and Brown communities.  

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Cato T. Laurencin & Aneesah McClinton

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Abstract / Description:

As the coronavirus spreads across the country, millions of Americans already struggling with health and finances ó especially those in minority communities ó could bear the brunt of it

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: LIZ ESSLEY WHYTE and CHRIS ZUBAK-SKEES

Abstract / Description:

As the coronavirus spreads across the country, millions of Americans already struggling with health and finances — especially those in minority communities — could bear the brunt of it. New data released Tuesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention show that COVID-19 patients with underlying health issues in the United States are more likely to need treatment in a hospital — or even in an intensive care unit. They are also at higher risk of dying, according to earlier epidemiological data from both China and the U.S.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: LIZ ESSLEY WHYTE, CHRIS ZUBAK-SKEES

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Abstract / Description:

Kendrick Sampson attended a peaceful protest in Pan Pacific Park in Los Angeles two weeks ago, which left him scarred in more ways than one. During that protest against police brutality, he was shot by officers seven times with rubber bullets and beaten with batons, leaving him with lingering mental and physical wounds. “We have never prioritized mental health in this country,” said Sampson, an actor and activist, speaking Monday at a Los Angeles City Council meeting where he and other Black Lives Matter Los Angeles representatives advocated for changes to the city’s budget. “Black and indigenous and brown folk in this country need healing, deserve healing, but instead are met by more trauma by these systems.”

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Sandhya Raman

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Abstract / Description:

Preparing for and overcoming any disaster, such as the current coronavirus pandemic, requires healthy and resilient communities. However, after age, obesity is the biggest risk factor for being hospitalized with COVID-19. And the U.S. has one of the highest obesity rates in the world, with drastic disparities among racial/ethnic groups, including the highest rates among Latinos. To beat COVID-19, we need healthier communities that prevent obesity and leaders who prioritize equitable access to healthy food, housing, and safe spaces to walk and bike instead of space for cars. “We in the U.S. have not always identified obesity as a disease, and some people think it’s a lifestyle choice. But it’s not,” said Dr. Matthew Hutter, director of the Weight Center at Massachusetts General Hospital and president of the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, according to the New York Times. “It makes people sick, and we’re realizing that now.”

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Amanda Merck

Abstract / Description:

As the coronavirus pandemic spread across the United States, it has disproportionately struck communities of color, particularly African Americans. As a recent ProPublica Illinois article revealed, of the first 100 recorded deaths from the coronavirus in Chicago, 70 of the victims were African American.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: ProPublica

Abstract / Description:

The COVID-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc across the globe, devastating economies, slashing millions of jobs and creating a health crisis like many have never seen before. But to say that the coronavirus is an indiscriminate predator would be misleading, as minorities face a much higher fatality rate at the hands of the respiratory illness than do their counterparts.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, Equity

Date: 2020

Author: Erin Dobrzyn, Gabriella Nuñez

Abstract / Description:

I dread every time my partner leaves our home. I dread every time Sadiqa marches to the front lines of the war against COVID-19—the emergency department. I dread every time she comes home and removes her personal protective equipment. Sadiqa is worried like a soldier in a total war, seeing so many medical providers going down, seeing so many patients going down. I am worried about her health—and my own, as someone surviving metastatic cancer. I am worried about all medical providers, all Americans who have compromised immune systems, all Americans who are infected, all Americans who are healthy and want to remain that way.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Ibram X. Kendi

Year: 2020

Abstract / Description:

Lack of access to structural support, sick leave and technology, and a mistrust of doctors and hospitals are among the social factors that contribute to health inequities among people of color, according to Linda Rae Murray, MD, MPH, a past president of the American Public Health Association and a leader in Chicago’s health community for more than 40 years. And in the COVID-19 pandemic, health inequity can be a killer. While people of color in the U.S. have long experienced unequal access to health care, “this global pandemic gives us an opportunity to really look carefully at health inequities,” Dr. Murray said during a JAMA Network™ livestreamed video interview.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Len Strazewski

Abstract / Description:

It will take months, if not years, to capture and understand just how big of an impact COVID-19 is having on the United States, but AMA President Patrice A. Harris, MD, MA, recently said that one aspect is evident right now. “What is already clear is this pandemic is having a disproportionate impact on African Americans,” Dr. Harris said. Dr. Harris made this comment during her opening statement for a virtual town hall hosted by the AMA and the National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ). The conversation centered on COVID-19 and the black community and was moderated by NABJ President Dorothy Tucker, an investigative reporter for CBS 2 Chicago (WBBM-TV).

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Marc Zarefsky

Abstract / Description:

 The new coronavirus is disproportionately striking minority populations -- particularly urban blacks and Navajo Indians living on their reservation. Experts say social and economic factors that predate the COVID-19 crisis may help explain why. "We found that there were large disparities in the proportion of people at risk of COVID-19 from minority and low-income populations," said study co-author Julia Raifman. She's an assistant professor of health law, policy and management at the Boston University School of Public Health.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Serena Gordon

Abstract / Description:

The racial health disparities that have emerged throughout the COVID-19 pandemic can be boiled down to three root causes: structural racism affecting patient access to care, high occurrence of chronic disease, and economic inequalities leading marginalized populations to work high-risk jobs, according to Patrice Harris, MD, the immediate past president of the American Medical Association (AMA). During a recent hearing on health and wealth inequality in American, held in the US House of Representatives, Harris joined other health and economic experts to outline how stark racial health disparities came to the forefront during the pandemic.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, Equity

Date: 2020

Author: Sara Heath

Abstract / Description:

COVID-19 is cutting a jarring and unequal path across the U.S. The disease is disproportionately killing people of color, particularly Black Americans, who have been dying at more than twice the rate of white people. In some places—Washington, D.C., Kansas, Wisconsin, Michigan and Missouri—the death rate is four to six times higher among Black people. Infection data are less reliable and less complete than information on mortality. Yet here, too, the discrepancies appear to be stark. The reason for these disparities is not biological but is the result of the deep-rooted and pervasive impacts of racism, says epidemiologist and family physician Camara Phyllis Jones. Racism, she argues, has led people of color to be more exposed and less protected from the virus and has burdened them with chronic diseases. For 14 years Jones worked at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a medical officer and director of research on health inequities. As president of the American Public Health Association in 2016, she led a campaign to explicitly name racism as a direct threat to public health. She is currently a fellow at Harvard University’s Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study and is writing a book about addressing racism.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Claudia Wallis

Abstract / Description:

Recent data shows that Black, Latino, indigenous, and immigrant communities are disproportionately affected by COVID-19, in large part because of the persistent legacy of structural racism—practices and policies that systematically benefit White people and harm people of color. From the Bronx and Queens, New York, to the Mission District in San Francisco, to the Navajo Nation and Black communities of New Orleans, Detroit, and Oakland, California, the message is clear: COVID-19 highlights our societal failures at the intersections of public health, health care, and social justice. If health inequities weren’t severe and oppressive enough, add the layer of police brutality that takes Black lives on a regular basis. No matter where we look, our system has continually devalued Black bodies and lives.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health, Equity

Date: 2020

Author: RACHEL R. HARDEMAN & RYAN HUERTO & ZOË JULIAN

Abstract / Description:

As legions of Philadelphians have been laid off or forced to work from their living rooms, Ashley Jimenez, the director of case management at two homeless shelters, has kept coming into work. She worries constantly about her clients, even more than usual. They are disproportionately elderly and afflicted with immune-compromising illnesses like HIV/AIDS. “This is a population who are … more susceptible to the COVID-19,” said Jimenez. “When I walk in those doors every day, I’m thinking, and it kind of goes two ways: How susceptible am I to them? And how susceptible are they to me?”

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Nina Feldman, Jake Blumgart

Abstract / Description:

Decades of inequality and institutional racism affecting black communities is becoming evident in covid-19 data, Chicago officials said Monday, as Mayor Lori Lightfoot sounded the alarm over significant racial disparities in deaths and coronavirus cases across the city. In Chicago, black Americans account for 68 percent of the cityís 118 deaths and 52 percent of the roughly 5,000 confirmed coronavirus cases, despite making up just 30 percent of the cityís population, according to data from the Chicago Department of Public Health.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: Meagan Flynn

Abstract / Description:

Stark statistics are coming to light only now and only in piecemeal fashion showing that African Americans are disproportionately affected by Covid-19. The racial divide in who gets infected, who gets tested, and who dies from Covid-19 is emerging from the few cities and states whose data are public.

Category: COVID-19 Impact on Minority Health

Date: 2020

Author: ELIZABETH COONEY

Year: 2020