2019 Heart Disease & Stroke Statistical Update Fact SheetCongenital Cardiovascular Defects
CCDs arise from abnormal formation of the heart or major blood vessels. CCDs range in severity from
very minor abnormalities that will never require medical therapy or intervention to complex
malformations, including absent or atretic portions of the heart, that could require multiple surgeries
and interventions, or even cardiac transplantation. Thus, there is significant variability in their
presentation and requirements for care that can have a significant impact on morbidity, mortality, and
healthcare costs in children and adults.